Ochratoxin A toxin has been shown to be weakly mutagenic by its induction of oxidative DNA damage Bennett and Klich, There are often consumed by children, people, whose religion restricts alcohol and anyone wishing to enjoy flavor drinks without alcohol, It is mostly consumed in the north for its thirst quenching properties Elmahmond et al. Gert, but grains are always harvested during the rainy season, a best period for yeast and mould which favors contamination by fungi and subsequent mycotoxin contamination. The relevance of these data is increased if we consider the high consumption rate of rice in Nigeria and, from a food safety perspective, the high occurrence of metabolites for which toxicology and associated health risk is not yet well characterised. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Also, Makun et al. Likewise, DON found in rye, rice, oat, barley as well as in safflower seeds and mixed feeds Pestka et al.
In each market, ten 10 samples of kunnu were collected from ten different sellers. It has been reported by many researchers fungi grow faster under warm conditions than under cool conditions. Globally, over half of all sorghum is used for human consumption. For spiking experiments, 0. The identification of the microbial isolates was based on classification Scheme proposed by Harrigan and McCance , Buchanan and Gibbson and Collin and Lyne Contamination of maize to fungi can be categorized into two main classes: It can also be sweetened with honey together with small quantity of sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and cadaba farinose crude extract.
It contains fibre, thus helping to promote a healthy digestive system. DON exposure has been linked to incidences of acute gastrointestinal diseases, kidney problems and immunosuppressive in animals Pestka et al.
Also, Makun et al. Contamination of ZEA occurring mainly in cereals such as maize, wheat, and barley fields, but also in sorghum, soybean, oats, hay, rice, rye, sesame seed and silages Zinedine et al. Among the emerging toxins, beauvericin literathre sterigmatocystin were the most frequently occurring, while citrinin was detected only in one sample, at a lower value Pure cultures of each isolate were obtained by streaking the specific colonies on suitable media and incubated appropriately; these were maintained in an agar slant in McCartney bottles.
Literature review on kunun zaki
Revview, an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on the health and productivity of human and animals have persuaded many countries around the world to implement regulations for maximum tolerable levels to control occurrence of these compounds in human food and animal feed Garrido et al. And, although breeding has resulted in better nutritional value of sorghum and better flavor, earlier sorghums had higher tannin levels, which caused offensive flavor and was advantageously used as a deterrent to birds.
Though consumed throughout the year, it is extensively consumed during the dry season Adeyemi and Umar,Elmahood et al.
Small-scale food industry also provides linkages to local suppliers of agricultural raw materials and to income generating activities such as the manufacture of machinery, packaging and ingredients FAO, Mostly it is consumed chilled for thirst quenching and also taken when one is hungry.
In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial Vogel, Toxicity of AFs can be categorized into two main groups: Sugar is also added to act as a sweetener. Hours of Operation Monday to Friday: These high-tannin sorghums are still grown where birds could cause significant losses Wikipedia, 2.
Likewise, DON found in rye, rice, oat, barley as well as in safflower seeds and mixed feeds Pestka et al. The collected samples were ln and ground into meal in a mortal and pestle, sealed in sterile zip-lock plastic bags and refrigerated before being taken to the laboratory for further analysis.
Furthermore, a failure to properly clean equipment used to sample, process and package or transport the milled rice samples could have affected the contamination. It will also contribute to the construction of a mycotoxin occurrence map for rice in Nigeria.
Literature review of kunu zaki
A recent report by the FAO on mycotoxins shows over countries worldwide had set regulatory limits on allowable mycotoxins levels in human and animal feeds Warth, et al. This low level is of no concern, because the toxicity of this substance was demonstrated for much higher adsorption Yekeler et al. Molecular structures of Fumonisin B1 and B2 Fumonisins have been found to produce a broad range of pathological effects in mammals Shephard et al.
These aflatoxins are pentaheterocyclic and highly conjugated compounds. The worst effect of DON toxicity in human depends on the extent of contamination in the food ingested.
Isolation of microbes associated with Kunu zaki drinks: The varieties of the drink made from sorghum is a milky light brown colour, while is made from millet and maize is whitish in colour Adejuyitan et al. The processed Kunu is usually packed for sale either in plastic bottles or in large containers and distributed under ambient temperature or cooled in a refrigerator where available.
Many legumes, on the other hand, are deficient in the essential amino acid methionine, which grains contain.
They are regarded as after meal drinks or refreshing drinks during the dry season in rural and urban centres.
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Help Center Find new research papers in: Rice production in Nigeria is considered a priority and a key value for the local economy. The warm and humidconditions provide a favorable environment for the growth of the molds and production of toxins both in field and storage Suleiman et al. Likewise, TCT has been previously associated with anemia, digestive disorders, leukopenia, and skin irritation.
The quality of the drinks depends on the raw materials and the hygiene of the personnel, water and the production environment.