The wetted area, after 2 h of irrigation, reached 0. Under natural conditions the tree can reach 20 to 25 m in height Lachenaud et al. Consequently, the resistance to water movement was low and CO 2 assimilation rates were higher. According to Orchard et al. Therefore, expectations are strong for the inclusion of China and India in the chocolate consumption market. Decreases in growth and in leaf area, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates, as well as epinasty and leaf fall and formation of hypertrophic lenticels and adventitious roots in submerged stems have been found during the flooding period, although the extent of these changes is genotype dependent Rehem, The slow growth of seedlings under full sunlight is due to constraints on leaf expansion, probably caused by excessive transpiration that would induce leaf water stress Okali and Owusu,

According to Miyaji et al. Entomofauna comparada com a do Sul da Bahia. Sale PJM Growth, flowering, and fruiting of cacao under controlled soil moisture conditions. Although illuminated, the greater synthesis of chl only occurs after the leaves reach their maximum expansion Abo-Hamed et al. Inclusive, resilient and sustainable market system development.

Bartley BGD Selfing of self-incompatible trees.

Specifically in regions with low access to inorganic fertilizers, the multistrata plantation is used to maintain soil fertility with the subsequent increase in nutrient availability for cacao Isaac et al.

Salvador, Universidade Federal da Bahia, M. Divkire and Coconuts, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use.

dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

Some measureas have been taken. This may an important acclimation strategy against drought Balasimha, These hormonal responses occur before the interaction pollinic tube-ovule suggesting the existence of an incompatibility system influenced by auxin Hasenstein and Zavada, Furthermore, the markets under greatest expansion are those of the emerging nations.


Cacao market – Dissertation – Laetitia Rakotoson

Owusu JK Light requirements of cocoa: Studies done under greenhouse conditions have shown that cacao seedlings, as for many tropical woody species, have alternative phases of root and shoot growth Taylor and Hadley, Even completely expanded they do not turn dark green, because they synthesize chl very slowly during expansion.

According to Miyaji et al. Moreover the Cocoa’s council has already contribute to the equipment and supplies to the Ministry of Health to reinforce their capacity to protect cocoa producers and make sure that if a case appears, they would be able to react immediately so this won’t spread.

dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

Machado RCR Carbohydrate as a factor controlling leaf development in cocoa. Bergman JF The distribution of cacao cultivation in pre-columbian America.

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However, on a sunny day both trees showed a substantial difference in transpiration when compared with a cloudy day. Daymond AJ An investigation into physiological parameters underlying yield variation between different varieties of cocoa Theobroma cacao L. Although Kummerow et al.

During the high temperature months the fly populations are low, which is reflected in the low productivity of sporadic harvests in that region K. Abscission of flowers in cacao occurs within d after anthesis in the absence of pollination disseetation fertilization, and even after manual pollination, only a small number of flowers develops and produces pods Hasenstein and Zavada, The quality of pollination can depend cotte two factors, the degree of pollen compatibility and the number of pollen grains deposited on the stigma Lanaud et al.

According to Greathouse et al. Content of these pigments fluctuates during leaf expansion total content of phenols remains high and that of anthocyanins decreases with maturity.


Cacao market

This shows that cacao production is positively related to light intensity Vernon,but this relationship depends didsertation on the availability of nutrients in the soil. The decrease in diffusive resistance and increase of water loss at the I-1 stage coincide with the period of higher ABA levels in leaves of the new as well as previous older flushes Orchard et al. You are commenting using your Google account.

The inefficient use of water low water-use efficiency, WUE at low RH probably would cause water deficit in shoots under conditions of limited soil water supply Sena Gomes et al. Okali and Owusu observed that leaf temperatures of unshaded cacao seedlings are higher than the dissertatiin ones, and the transpiration rate is usually at its maximum.

dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

According to Aneja et al. Today the world faces a new situation with the search for new renewable energy sources. You are commenting using your Twitter account.

Cocoa and Development in Cote D’Ivoire

For cacao grown in southeastern Bahia the flowering, fruiting and pod growth patterns show low flushing in June to September Cazorla et al.

The daily transpiration rate was estimated to be 90 L cotw -1 2. Stevenson A Cocoa: The temperatures below the point at which development ceases base temperature were calculated by Daymond and Hadley to vary from Joly RJ Physiological adaptations for maintaining photosynthesis under water stress in cacao.